Chapter 11

1 Cf. Neal, Puritans, i, 243.

2 Cf. Constitutions and Canon, Eccelesiastical (London, 1640), pp. 19–21; Francis Cheynell, Rise, p. 34; Neal, Puritans, ii, 299–307; Monthly Repository, x(1815), 430; Wallace, Antitrin,, i, 64–67.

3 In London in 1644 a preacher at a religious meeting in Bell Alley declared that ‘though Christ was a prophet and did miracles, yet he was not God; and near Coleman Street there was a society denying the divinity of Christ, under the leadership of a certain Welchman. Cf. Bonet-Maury, Sources, p. 197.

4 The figures and the lists of names given do not quite agree.

5 Cf. John Hunt, Religious Thought in England (London, 1870), i, 198–205; Neal, Puritans, v, appendix viii.

6 Cf. Neal, Puritans, iii, 280–282.

7 Cf. Neal, Puritans, iv, 172–178.

8 Cf. Wood, Athenae, ii, 358–361; Biog. Brit., iii, 597; Neal, Puritans, iv, 370.

9 For an extended analysis of it by the Rev. Robert Aspland, v. Monthly Repository, x (1815), 81, 162, 364, 497.

10Cf. Neal, Puritans, iii, 360–406.

11 Cf. Wood, Athenace i, p. 284 of the Fasti; Wallace, Antitrin., iii, 158 ff; Bonet-Maury, Sources, p. 196.

12 v. his Accuser Sham’d (London, 1648), to which a denial of the Trinity is appended; and The Clergy in their True Colors (1650). Cf. Wood, Athenae, ii, 359–361; Bulstrode Whitelock, Memorials of English Affairs (Oxford, 1853), iii, 291; D. N. B., s.v.

13 Cf. Edwards, Gangraena, ut infra, Part i, I, Letters, etc., p. 1, 7–9, 26; Part ii, 13; Georgius Hornius, Historia Ecclesiastica (Francofurti ad Moenum, 1704), pp. 638, 642.

14 Cf. Wallace, Antitrin, i, 79–92.

1 5Cf.Wood, Athenae, ii, 102; Wallace, Antitrin., i, 105–107. It was popular enough to reach the sixth edition in 1662.

16 In his Divine Trinunity, Epistle Dedicatory, p. B3a.

17Cf. Wallace, Antitrin., i, 108–110; Cheynell, Trinunity, pp. 453–480. Cf. supra, p. 174 f.

18 Cf. Paul Best, Mysteries Discovered (London, 1647), the first Socinian book published in England; Whitelock, Memorials, i, 565, 572; ii, 2, 4f, 181; Neal, Puritans, iii, 266; Monthly Repository, viii (1813), 109; ‘Paul Best, the Unitarian Confessor,’ Christian Reformer, ix, N. S. (1853), 493–503; Wallace, Antitrin., iii, 161–167; D. N.B., s. v.

19 The text in full in Crosby, English Baptists, i, 197–205; Wallace, Antitrin., iii, 588–590; cf. Neal, Puritans, iii, 418–425; Toulmin, Biddle, pp. 59–65; Henry Scobell, Collection of Acts and Ordinances (London, 1658), p. 149 f.

20 The name is variously spelled. He was baptized and was matriculated at Oxford as Bidle, but later in life (cf. U. H. S., London, vi, 236, 1937) he used the form Biddle. In an age when persons were often inconsistent in the spelling of even their own names, forms were used indifferently, sometimes even in the same writing in contemporary works as late as the quarto “Unitarian Tracts” toward the end of the century.

Cf. (John Farrington), Johannis Biddelli (Angli) Academiae Oxoniensis quondam Artium Magistri celeberrimi vita (Londinii, 1682); (Anon.), Short account of the life of John Bidle, M. A., in vol. i of “Unitarian Tracts” (London, 1691); Wood, Athenae, ii, 299–306, also reprinted in Monthly Repository, xiv (1818), 345–349, 413–419; Crosby, English Baptists, i, 206–216; Biog. Brit., ed. 2 (London, 1778–1793), ii, 302–309, s. v.; Whitelock, Memorials, ii, 204; iv, 160; Neal, Puritans, iv, 122 f; Toulmin, Biddle; Wallace, Antitrin., iii, 173–206; D. N. B., s. v.

21 Amalgamated with Hertford College in 1822.

22 The school was connected with the parish of St. Mary-de-Crypt in Southgate. Biddle’s chamber is extant over the gateway directly opposite the house of Robert Raikes.

23 The letter, dated April 1, 1647, is appended to the first tract in vol. i of “Unitarian Tracts,” 1691. Cf. Toulmin, Biddle, pp. 32–39.

24 It was at once attacked in print in an anonymous tract entitled God's glory vindicated and blasphemy confuted, etc. (London, May 15, 1647).

25 Eight years later Estwick completed his confutation of these three early writings of Biddle, which had recently all been revised and reissued in 1653, in a book of over 500 pp., entitled Mr. Bidle's Confession of Faith, etc. (London, 1656), but while really confuting the Confession, he mistakenly supposed it to be the now notorious Catechism, of which he evidently had only hearsay knowledge. Cf. Wallace, Antitrin., i,131 f.

26 v. supra. pp. 189, 191.

27 Cf. (Stephen Nye), 'Grounds and Occasions of the Controversy,' etc., p. 16, in vol. v of "Unitarian Tracts" (London, 1698); Walter H. Burgess, 'John Knowles and Henry Hedworth; Transactions of Unitarian Historical Society (London), v (1931), 1–16; Alexander Gordon, `John Cooper, the Cheltenham Unitarian,' Christian Life (London), xxv, 128, March 18, 1899; id., `John Cooper of Cheltenham, 1622–1665,' id. op., xliv, 278, Aug. 30, 1919; correcting Wallace, Antitrin., iii, 360–362, and John Goding, `The History of Unitarianism at Cheltenham,’ Christian Reformer (London), xi, N. S. (1844), 386–391.

28 He was at this time a Socinian, the only one of the ejected who held these views at the time of ejection.

29 This has been incorrectly spoken of as a Unitarian congregation, and the earliest in England. But the name Unitarian did not begin to be used in England until a decade after this. The group was undoubtedly Antitrinitarian, for Cooper's intimate relations were with those that inclined that way.

30 Not 1682, as a forged entry in the Cheltenham parish register has it.

31 v. infra, p. 199.

32 Cf. vol. i of the present work, p. 496.

33 Cf. Nye, loc. cit.; Burgess, op. cit.; D. N. B., s. v.; Wallace, Antitrin., iii, 210–221; William Urwick, Sketches of Nonconformity in . . . Chester (London, 1864), pp. 15–18, 465 f.

34 The items in it were: Knowles, A Friendly Debate . . . concerning the Divinity of Jesus Christ (London, 1650); Eaton, the Mystery of God Incarnate (London, 1650); do., A Vindication, or further Confirmation . . . to prove the Divinity of Christ (London, 1651). These last two were large volumes, answering Knowles's small book.

35 Cf. Robert Ferguson, justification only upon Satisfaction . . . asserted against the Socinians (London, 1668); Knowles, An Answer to Mr. Ferguson's book . . . wherein he is friendly reproved, fully silenced, and clearly instructed (London, 1668).

36 Cf. Burgess, Knowles and Hedworth, supra, pp. 186f, n. Alexander Gordon, 'Henry Hedworth and the early Unitarian Movement,' Christian Life, xviii, 399, Aug. 20, 1892.

37Cf.(Stephen Nye), `Brief History of the Unitarians,' p. 47, in "Unitarian Tracts," vol. i, 1691.

38 Perhaps Dáiel Márkos Szentiványí v. supra, p. 148.

39 On pp. 53 f, 56 f. The earliest occurrence was long believed to be on the title-page of Nye's Brief History, etc., ed. 1, 1687, republished in Vol. i of "Unitarian Tracts."

40 Vetus Testamentum Graecum ex versione Septuaginta, etc. (Londoni, Rogerus Daniel, 1653). The first edition of the Septuagint published in England.

41This has sometimes been called the first Unitarian church in England; but there appears no evidence that it was organized as a church, or was more than an informal meeting of people of kindred mind; and in any case the name Unitarian did not become current in England until somewhat later.

42The Happy Future State of England (London, 1688), preface, p. E*; cf. Toulmin, Biddle, pp. 79–81; Wallace, Antitrin., iii, 186 f; Wood, Athenae, ii, 1008.

43 Cf. Wood, Athenae, ii, 261–263.

44 v. supra, p. 174.

45 Cf. Whitelock, Memorials, p. 521; Thomas Rees, The Racovian Catechism (London, 1818), p. A5b.

46 But in all probability by Biddle. Cf. Joshua Toulmin, Memoire of the Life, . . . of Faustus Socinus (London, 1777), p. 260.

47Vindiciae pro Deitate Spiritus Sancti adversus Pneumatomachum Johannem Biddellum Anglum (Franekerae, 1652); also in his Theologica Opera omnia, ii, 451 ff(Amstelodami, 1684).

48 Also translated as A Dissertation on Divine Justice, etc., in his Works (Edinburgh, 1853–55), x, 480–624.

49 Namely: Samuel Przypcovius, The Life of that Incomparable Man, Faustus Socinus Senensis; Joachim Stegmann, Sr., Brevis Disquisitio; or, a Brief Inquiry touching a better way than is commonly made use of, to refute Papists, and reduce Protestants to Certainty in Religion (also reprinted in The Phenix (London), ii, 315–347 (1708); Przypcovius, Dissertatio de Pace, etc., or, A Discourse concerning the Peace and Concord of the Church, also in The Phenix, ii(1708), 348–390. All these were issued in 1653 in London, with no author's name given.

50 For a fuller account of them, with a digest of contents, cf. Toulmia, Biddle, sec. xi.

51 Cf. Wallace, Antitrin., i, 118–122.

52 Although the Racovian Catechism had already been in print in England for two years, the present Catechism is in no sense a rehash of that, and shows few traces, if any, of its influence. The choice of topics and the order of them are as different as possible, and the manner of treatment of them is quite unlike. The answers are exclusively in the language of Scripture. The Catechism for Children, again, is not a mere abridgment of the other, having less than half as many chapters, and being different in order and contents.

Ten years later both these Catechisms were translated into Latin for the use of foreign scholars, by Nathanael Stuckey, a lad of fifteen, whom Biddle had assisted in his studies, and whose widowed mother was one of Biddle's congregation. Upon his premature death soon after, she offered to take into her vacant home two children of the exiled Polish minister, Christopher Crellius, and to take care of their education. Appended to this translation is also a letter from Danzig, addressed to Biddle by Jeremias Felbinger, a recent German convert, expressing his joy at the accession of Biddle to the party of the Antitrinitarians. Cf. F. S. Bock, Bibliotheca Antitrinitariorum (Regiomonti et Lipsiae, 1774–84), i, 348; Wallace, Antitrin., iii, 326–328, 591; Monthly Repository, xi(1816), 633 ff.

53 Cf. Toulmin, Biddle, pp. 90–106.

54 Religio Sociniana, seu Catechesis Racoviana Major ... refutata (Amstelodami, 1652).

55 Cf. his Atheismus Socinianus a Johanne Bidello Anglo, nuper sub specioso Scripturae titulo orbi obtrusus, jam . . . detectus atque refutatus (Franekerae, 1659).

56 Cf. his Hydra Socinianismi Expugnata (Groningae, 1654).

57 Cf. John Brayne, The Divinity of the Trinity cleared, etc. (also printed under the title, Mr. John Biddle's Strange and New Trinity) (London, 1654), in answer to Biddle's Apostolical and True Opinion concerning the Holy Trinity as reprinted in 1653.

58 Cf. Whitelock, Memorials, iv, 160; Neal, Puritans, iv, 122 f.

59 Also in his Works, vol. xii.

60 Cf. Vindiciae, p. 69.

61 Cf. Toulmin, Biddle, pp, 117–119;Wood, Athenae, ii, 304; Crosby, English Bap­tists, i, 209–217; Wallace, Antitrin., i, 128 f, ii, 189 f.

62 v, supra, p. 192.

63 Respectively: Two letters of Mr. John Biddle, late prisoner in Newgate, but now hurried away to some remote island; A True State of the case of Liberty of Conscience . . . together with a True Narrative of the cause, and manner, of Mr. John Biddle's sufferings; The Spirit of Persecution again broken loose . : . against Mr. John Biddle, etc.; The Petition of divers gathered Churches . . . for declaring the Ordinance . . . for punishing Blasphemies and Heresies null and void. All, London, 1555. Cf. also Crosby, English Baptists, i, 209–215;Wallace, Antitrin., ii, 196–201.

64 v. supra, p. 196.

65 William Pynchon, The Meritorious Price of our Redemption (London, 1650).

66 His body was laid to rest in a cemetery near Moorfields, and a monument was placed; but the site has long since been obliterated.


Chapter 12

1Cf. Neal, Puritans, iv,592.

2 Cf. Neal, op. cit., iv, 324–330. This Act was followed in 1664by the Conventicle Act, condemning to banishment or death any refusing to go to Church, and forbidding any to hold or attend any religious meeting except those of the Church of England, under pain of imprisonment, fine or banishment. Again in 1665,by the Five-Mile Act, forbidding nonconformist ministers to come within five miles of any city or town where they had ministered, or to teach in any school, under heavy fine. Finally in 1673 by the Test Act, requiring any holder of public office to receive the sacrament in Church in public, under pain of a fine of £500. Cf. Neal, iv, 357 f, 366 f, 422f, all summarized, 423 f.

3 So given in Edmund Calamy, Nonconformist's Memorial, ed. 2 by Samuel Palmer (London, 1778), i, pref., p. 1, n. The figure usually given is the round number of 2,000. But A. G. Mathews, Calamy Revised (Oxford, 1934), p. xiii, reduces the number to 1760, besides 149 from Universities and schools.

4 Cf. Edward Cary Pike, Four Lectures on English Nonconformity (London, 1895).

5 Of the ejected clergy themselves the only one known to have adopted Unitarian views later was William Manning, an Independent of Peasenhall, Suffolk, who was converted to them by reading Dr. Sherlock's Vindication of the Trinity (1690). Cf. Wallace, Antitrin., iii, 495–503. v. infra, p. 219.

6John Crellius Francus,  The Two Books touching One God the Father (Kosmoburg­ London, 1665), with rubricated title. The same sheets reissued with the title, The Unity of God asserted and defended, etc. (London, 1691).

7 Cf. vol. i, of the present work, p. 418, n. 27.

v, infra, p. 219.

9 Christopher Christophori Sandius, Nucleus Historiae Ecclesiasticae, exhibitus in Historia Arianorum (Cosmopoli-Amsterdam, 1669); ed. 2, enlarged (Coloniae-Amsterdam), 1676.

10Cf. Bock, Historia, i, 745, 748.

11 The Sandy Foundation Shaken (London, 1668). Cf. Wallace, Antitrin., i, 160–169.

12 The strained feeling continued for several years. Witness the spirited controversy in 1672/3 between Fox, Hedworth and Penn, to which reference has been made above, v. supra, p. 199.

13Cf. Wallace, loc. cit.; Monthly Repository, xii (1817), 348, 481.

14Cf. his Rehearsal Transposed, etc. (London, 1672), p. 172, cited in Wallace, Antitrin., i, 169 f.

15A Brief Declaration and Vindication of the Doctrine of the Trinity, also of the Person and Satisfaction of Christ (London, 1669); also in his Works, ii, 365–454.

16 A Treatise on Christian Doctrine, compiled from the Holy Scriptures alone (London, 1825). The publication at once occasioned the writing of two famous essays on Milton: by Macaulay in the Edinburgh Review, xlii (1825), 304–346; and by Channing in the Christian Examiner (Boston), iii (1826), 29–77. Cf. Wallace, Antitrin., iii, 328–357.

17 Cf. Herbert McLachlan, The Religious Views of Milton, Locke and Newton (Manchester, 1941).

18 Cf. Thomas Burgess, John Milton, Protestant Union. A Treatise on True Religion, etc. (London, 1826).

19 Cf. the section on ‘The Religious Press vs. John Milton, Heretic,’ in Francis E. Mineka, The Dissidence of Dissent (Chapel Hill, 1944), pp. 84–97.

20 The most important notices were a series of six successive monthly articles by the Independent scholar, the Rev. John Pye Smith, in the Evangelical Magazine, N. S. iv (1826);and one in the Monthly Repository, xx (1825), 609, 687, 748;also the Rev. John Evans's articles, id. op., xx, 710–713;xxi, 724–731.Cf. Francis E. Mineka, ‘The Critical Reception of Milton's De Doctrina Christiana,’ University of Texas Studies in English (Austin, 1943), pp. 115–147.

21Cf. Martin A. Larson, ‘Milton and Servetus; a study in the Sources of Milton's Theology,’ Publications of the Modern Language Association of America, xli, no. 4 (Dec., 1926), pp. 891–934; Louis Aubrey Wood, The Form and Origin of Milton's Antitrinitarian Conception (London, Ont., 1911). The latter of these two refers to the influence of Ochino's Dialogues of 1563.

22 Note especially the early part of his The Hind and the Panther (lines 52–61, 150–153), and Religio Laici, lines 311–313.

23 In three editions (n. p., 1675); reprinted in Somers, Collection of . . . Tracts (London, 1748–51), ser. I, vol. iii, pp. 329–338; and with introduction by Bp. Henson (London, 1919); answered by (Gilbert Burnet), A Modest Survey of . . . Naked Truth; (Francis Turner), Animadversions upon . . . Naked Truth; (Peter Gunning), Lex Talionis; defended by (Andrew Marvell), Mr. Smirke; or, The Divine in Mode, all (Lon­don, 1676) reprinted in part in "Unitarian Tracts," v, last essay. Cf. Ethyn W. Kirby, "The Naked Truth": a Plan for Church Unity,' Church History, vii (1935). 45–61.

24 Cf. Life of Mr. Thomas Firmin, late Citizen of London (London, 1698), including Sermon on his death, and An Account of Mr. Firmin's Religion; Alexander Gordon, ‘Thomas Firmin, Unitarian Philanthropist,’ in his Addresses Biographical and Historical (London, 1922); Harold W. Stephenson, ‘A Seventeenth Century Philanthropist,’ U. H. S. (London), vol. vi; Wallace, Antitrin., iii, 272–389.

25 Cf. Thomas Birch, Life of . . . John Tillotson (London, 1752), p. 319; cited from White Kennet, Register and Chronicle, etc. (London, 1728), p. 761.

26 Cf. vol. i of the present work, p. 496 f.

27Cf. Stephen Nye, The Explication of the Articles of the Divine Unity, the Trinity, and Incarnation (London, 1715), pp. 181–193.

28 Cf. Neal, Puritans, v, 29–31.

29v. infra, p. 227.

30 Cf. Birch, Tillotson, pp. 180–209; Wallace, Antitrin., i, 196–200.

31 Of these tracts there were five successive collections, dated from 1691 to 1703, each with a numbered title. The first three were subsidized by Firmin. Those published after his death seem to have modified their scope, and included new contributors. A sixth collection is sometimes mentioned, but no copy is found with the usual title, and as such copies vary in contents they are doubtless collections individually made and bound up. For lists of contents, and descriptions, see Wallace, Antitrin., i, 229 f; 236 f; 265 f; 361 f; iii, 604–607;Herbert McLachlan, 'Seventeenth Century Unitarian Tracts,' in his The Story of a Non-conformist Library (Manchester, 1925), pp.5387;Hunt, Religious Thought, ii, 273–278; iii, 604–607.

32 A Preservative against Socinianism: showing the direct and plain opposition between it, and the religion revealed by God in the Holy Scriptures (Oxonii, 1698–1703).Issued in four separate parts variously dated; the first in 1693.

33 Cf. 'Considerations on the Explications of the Doctrine of the Trinity,' Unitarian Tracts, iii (1695), 66–68; also ‘A Discourse concerning the Nominal and Real Trinitarians,’ id. op., vol. iii. Both anonymous, but by Nye. Wallace, Antitrin., i, 340–342.

34 There were those that were more impressed by his tendencies toward heresy than by his countless services to philanthropy. One such felt moved in the following year to preach in St. Paul's before the Aldermen a sermon on 'A False Faith not justified by care for the poor. Proved in a sermon' by the Rev. Luke Milbourn; but he was soon suitably answered in a published 'vindication.'

35 Mr. Firmin's religion, p. 48.

36  loc. cit. supra. Cf. Wallace, Antitrin„ i, 253, citing Charles Leslie, The Socinian Controversy discuss'd (London, 1708–10), Part vi, preface, p. i.

37Cf. `The Agreement of the Unitarians with the Catholic Church,' Unitarian Tracts, vol. iii (1697); and 'The Grounds and Occasions of the Controversy concerning the Unity of God,' etc., id. op. (1698).

38  Cf. Stephen Nye, The Explication of the Articles of the Divine Unity, the Trinity, and Incarnation, etc. (London, 1715).

39 In particular, Biddle's followers rejected the Socinian idea of the invocation of Christ as a subordinate divine being, and that of the natural mortality of man; while they added the conception of the Holy Spirit as an angel, and the doctrine of the essential immortality of the soul.

40 Cf. Neal, Puritans, v, 77–89; Birch, Tillotson, pp. 164–214.

41 Cf. Birch, op. cit., pp. 180–208.

42 Cf. Georgius Bullius, Defensio Fidei Nicaenae, etc. (Oxonii, 1685); also in his Works (Oxford, 1846), vol. v; Eng. trans., Library of Anglo-Catholic Theology (Oxford, 1851). Supplementary to this was his Judicium Ecclesiae Catholicae, etc. (Oxonii1694); also in his Works, vol. vi; Eng. Trans. As above, 1855.

43 Cf. Sandius, Nucleus, ut supra, p. 211.

44 Cf. Dionysius Petavius, De Theologicis Dogmatibus (Parisiis, 1644 ff).

45 Cf. Robert Nelson, Life of Dr. George Bull (London, 1713), p. 280 ff; Abbey and Overton, The English Church in the Eighteenth Century (London, 1878), i, 484–486; Wallace, Antitrin., i, 184–187; Patrick Fairbairn's Review appended to J. A. Dorner's History of the Development of the Doctrine of the Person of Christ (Edinburgh, 1863), 340–350.

46 Cf. Wallace, Antitrin., i, 331–339.

47 Cf: Wallace, Antitrin., iii, 362–371; Robert Nelson, The Life of Dr. George Bull, in his Works (Oxford, 1846), pp. 420–437.

48 Cf. Bock, Bibliotheca, i, 172–175; Wallace, Antitrin., iii, 484–486.

49 (Lucas Mellierus-anagram for Samuel Crellius), Fides Primorum Christianorum, ex Barnaba, Herma, et Clemente Romano monstrata, Defensioni Fidei Nicaenae D. Georgii Bulli opposita (Londini, 1697).

50 Cf. his Disquisitiones Modestae in Clarissimi Bulli Defensionem Fidei Nicaenae (Londini, 1718). See also Whitby's reply to Dr. Waterland's objections (in two parts) (London, 1720, 1721).  Cf. Sparks, Collection of Essays, ii, 19–21.

51 Cf. the exact reprint (London, 1830), taken from Horsley's edition of Newton's Works (London, 1785), vol. v; also in Sparks, op, cit., ii, 235–320.

52 Cf. Sparks, op. cit.; Wallace, Antitrin., iii, 428–468; McLachlan, Religious Views, p. 200; Louis T. More, Life of Sir Isaac Newton (New York, 1934).

53 Writers have often mistakenly called him Master of Lincoln College.

54 Cf. Hunt, Religious Thought, ii, 194–201; Wallace, Antitrin., i, 200–207, 279 f. The ensuing controversy ran to fifteen or more separate items.

55  v. supra, p. 219.

56 Cf. Wallace, Antitrin., i, 214–224a, 236–238.

57 An Apology for writing against Socinianism, etc. (London, 1693).

58 Animadversions upon Dr. Sherlock's book, entitled A Vindication of the Holy and Ever-Blessed Trinity, etc. (London, 1693).

59 The German theologian Abraham Calovius in his Dissertationes Theologicae Rosto­chienses, etc. (Rostochii, 1637), p. 6, says of South that "in a subject that requires the greatest sobriety of style he has vented his fury in a way so boisterous . . . that if a system of scurrility were to be compiled, I know not where the materials are to be so plentifully found as in his writings."

60 In the final number of Unitarian Tracts, vol. iv (1693).

61 The items of most importance, after the originals by Sherlock and South, are the following: (Edward Wetenhall) An Earnest and Compassionate Suit for Forberance (1692); Sherlock, An Apology for Writing against Socinlanism in Defence of the Doctrines of the Trinity and Incarnation (1693); (Howe) A Calm and Sober Enquiry con­cerning the Possibility of a Trinity in the Godhead (1695); (Sherlock) A Defence of Dr. Sherlock's Notion of a Trinity in Unity (1694); (South) Tritheism Charged upon Dr. Sherlock's New Notion of the Trinity (1695); (anon.) Reflexions on the Good Temper, and Fair Dealing, of the Animadverter upon Dr. Sherlock's Vindication (1695); Bingham, Sermon on the Trinity (1695); Sherlock, Modest Examination of the Authorities and Reasons of the late Decree (1696); Sherlock, The Distinction between Real and Nominal Trinitarians Examined (1696). For a sufficiently full account of the whole controversy, see Wallace, Antitrin., i, 199–358; Mr. Firmin's Religion, pp., 52–83; Hunt, Religious Thought, ii, 194–222; Sherlock, The Present State of the Socinian Controversy (1698); John Stoughton, History of Religion in England (London, 1881), v, 157–165.

62Cf. his Works (London, 1820), iii, 310 f.

63 Cf. Birch's Tillotson, pp. 442–444, 343.

64 4Modest Examination . . . of the late Decree, etc. (London, 1695); answered by (Jonathan Edwards), Remarks upon . . . A Modest Examination, etc. (Oxford, 1696).

65 Cf. Wallace, Antitrin., i. 329–331; Mr. Firmin's Religion, pp. 54–56 v. supra, p. 216n.

66 Cf. vol. i of the present work; p. 237 f.

67 A Designed End to the Socinian Controversy (London, 1695); for which, as heretical, the author was called to account before the ecclesiastical court, and required to recant the heresies therein contained. Cf. Wallace, Antitrin., i, 289–298.

68 Cf. Wallace, Antitrin., i, 344 f.

69 The Present State of the Socinian Controversy, etc. (London, 1698). Cf. Mr. Firmin's Religion, pp.68–83.

70A Brief but Clear Confutation of the Doctrine of the Trinity.

71 Cf. Wallace, Antitrin., i, 377–384: Hugo Arnot, Collection and Abridgment of Celebrated Criminal Trials in Scotland (Edinburgh, 1785), pp. 377–384; Thomas Bayly Howell, Complete Collection of State Trials, etc. (London, 1809–28), xiii, 918–939; Monthly Repository, viii (1813), 17, 108, 178–180; John Gordon, Thomas Aikenhead (London, 1856).

72 Cf. John Edwards, Some thoughts concerning the several Causes and Occasions of Atheism . . . with some brief reflections on . . . The Reasonableness of Christianity (London, 1695). See also a far more temperate criticism in (Anon.) Animadversions on . . . The Reasonableness of Christianity (Oxford, 1697).

73 Cf. The Exceptions of Mr. Edwards in his Causes of Atheism, etc., examined (London, 1695).

74 Cf. Wallace, Antitrin., i, 308–322; John Edwards, Socinianism Unmask'd (London, 1696); id., The Sociriian Creed (London, 1697).

75 Cf. Wallace, Antitrin., i, 314 f; 321–323; Bold, A Short Discourse of the True Knowledge of Christ Jesus (London, 1697); id., Some Passages in the Reasonableness of Christianity (1697); id., A Reply to Mr. Edwards's Brief Reflections (1697); id., Observations on the Animadversions . . . on The Reasonableness of Christianity (1698); id., Some Considerations on . . . Locke's Essay of Humane Understanding (1699); all republished together in his Collection of Tracts (London, 1706).

76 This is perhaps the place to record an isolated but very interesting trace of an effort to widen the extent of Unitarian influence even before the publishing of the Unitarian Tracts. In 1682 some persons describing themselves only as "two single philosophers," but writing as though representing the Unitarians, addressed the Embassador of the Emperor of Morocco to Charles II, upon his departure from the country. The writers emphasize the fact that Unitarians alone among Christians hold to the unity of God, and thus in religious sympathy are closest to the Mohammedans. They therefore hand the Embassador some little Unitarian books to be presented to his countrymen as a specimen of the thought of Unitarians in England. They add a brief statement of the points wherein the Unitarians agree with the Mohammedans, of the origin and history of Unitarianism, and of points in Mohammedanism that need correcting. Whether this letter ever reached its destination is not recorded; but some years later the controversialist the Rev. Charles Connor succeeded in obtaining a copy of it, and seeing a tactical advantage in doing so he prefixed it to two letters on the Socinian controversy (dated 1694 and 1697), by way of proving that the English Unitarians were not Christians, but nearly the same as Mohammedans. This publication created a considerable sensation at the time, which was much taken advantage of by the orthodox, but it was soon lost among graver issues. The whole is found as an introduction to Charles Leslie, The Socinian Controversy Discuss'd (London, 1708). Also reprinted in America, 'Letter to a Mahometan Ambassador,' in The Panoplist (Boston), xi (1815), 72–78, The original Ms is in the Archepiscopal Library at Lambeth, Codd. Mss Tenisoniani, No. 673. Cf. Alexander Gordon, 'The Primary Document of English Unitarianism,' ChristianLife, xviii (1892), 464 f, 476f, 523 f.

77 In Unitarian Tracts, vol. iv. Anonymous, but the joint production of two clergymen, William Stephens; Oxon., and Henry Day, Cantab.

78 Cf. Josiah Toulmin, Historical View of the State of the Protestant Dissenters in England (London, 1814), pp. 120–133; Lindsey, Historical View, pp.302, 319.


Chapter 13

1 Cf. Tulloch, Rational Theology, vol.. ii; Hunt, Religious Thought, i, 410–438.

2 Cf. his Memoirs of his Life and Writings (London, 1749); and the Historical Preface, prefixed to his Primitive Christianity Revived, vol. i (London1711).

3 Cf. his Memoirs, part ii, p. 461.

4 Whiston might fairly enough be called an Arian, though he preferred instead the designation Eusebian, but Clarke differed from Arius in some vital points so widely that he refused to own the name in any sense. Heretics, however, have seldom been able to fix the name by which they are to be called, and it has more often fallen to their orthodox opponents to fasten upon them a name identifying them with some ancient heresy to which they seemed akin, thus illustrating the remark that "all labels are libels."

5 Robert Boyle, famous scientist and devout Christian, provided by his will (1691) for a lecturer to preach each year eight sermon-lectures on the evidences of Christianity. This was the precursor of other similar lectureships.

6 Cf. Observations on Mr. Whiston's Historical Memoirs (London, 1747), p. 70.

7 Cf. Whiston, Historical Memoirs of the Life of Dr. Samuel Clarke (London, 173o), p. 12.

8 So great a clamor presently arose against this passage that in the second edition (1719) it was omitted.

9 The main attacks (all but one by clergymen) were by Edward Wells, Robert Nelson, James Knight, Bp. Francis Gastrell of Chester, John Edwards, Edward Welchman, Bp. John Potter of Oxford, Thomas Bennet, Richard Mayo, and above all Dr. Daniel Waterland. Defences by Daniel Whitby, Arthur Ashley Sykes, John Jackson, and several anonymous writers. Cf. William Van Mildert, Life of Daniel Waterland, pp. 36–43,prefixed to Waterland's Works, vol. i (Oxford, 1856); Abbey and Overton, English Church, i, 494–503.

10 Cf. all the documents of the proceedings in An Apology for Dr. Clark (anon. But by John Lawrence), London, 1714.

11 Cf. Waterland, A Vindication of Chris's Divinity (Cambridge, 1719), followed by A second Vindication (1723), and A further Vindication (1724).

12 Cf. Waterland, The Case of Arian Subscription considered; and the several pleas and excuses for it particularly examined and confuted (Cambridge, 1721); Supplement to the same (1772); Contra (A. A. Sykes), The Case of Subscription to the XXXIX Articles considered (London 1721); A Reply to Dr. Waterland's Supplement, etc. (1772); J. Hay Colligan, The Arian Movement in England (Manchester, 1913), chap. iv. 

13 Priestley cites fourteen different senses in which a subscription to the XXXIX Articles has been vindicated by divines. Cf. Priestly, Works, xix, 527 f.

14 Cf. Van Mildert, Life of Waterland, pp. 58–67.

15 It was not until the revision of the Book of Common Prayer in 1928 that the use of the Athanasian Creed in worship made optional. It was never adopted by the Protestant Episcopal Church in America.

16 Cf. Herbert S. Skeats and Charles S. Miall, History of the Free Churches of England, 1688–1891 (London, 1891), p. 237: "In the days of which we write it was certainly more profitable, so far as this world was concerned, for a man to live in violation of the whole of the moral law than for him to deny the truth of the Athanasian Creed."

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