Chapter 7

1 Cf. Magyar Em1élek, iv, 551; Károly Veszély, Erdélyi Egyháztörténetelmi Adatok (Contributions to the church history of Transylvania), Kolozsvár, 1860, p. 233. In the records of this Diet is found the first known use of the word Unitaria in any public document.

2 Cf. Uzoni, Historia, i, 387.

3 The date was July 17, 1603. The site of the battle is variously designated. The most precise definition makes it at Rosenau, some eleven miles southwest of Brassó. Other authorities name the valley of Alabor near the paper-mill; also Apáczá. A monument was erected on the spot where the fallen were buried. It bore the pathetic inscription:

            Quos genuit cives, hic Transylvania claudit.

            Heu, parvo tumulo quanta ruina jacet!

4 For the gruesome details cf. Bod, Historia, i, 474 f, quoting Thuanus; Isthvánfius, Historia, p. 784.

5 Cf. Uzoni, Historia, ii, 627–636.

6 Cf. Lampe, Historia, p. 335, Bod, Historia, ii, 5.

7 Cf. Uzoni, Historia,ii, 961–964.

8 Cf. Uzoni, Historia, ii, 963 f.

9 Cf. Uzoni, op. cit., ii, 647.

10 Cf. Uzoni, op. cit., ii, 648–651.

11 Cf. Uzoni Historia, ii, 652 f; i, 353.

12 Cf. his Transslvania (1584), p. 66; Epistolae et Acta, i, 280.

13 For the best exhaustive study of Sabbatarianism, cf. Samuel Kohn, Die Sabbatharier in Siebenbürgen (Budapest, 1894), being a revised and abridged translation of the author’s A Sombatosok történetük, etc. (History of the Sabbatarians), Budapest, 1889. Cf. also László Köváry, ‘A Szombatosok irodalmi maradványai’ etc. (The literary remains . . . of the Sabbatarians), Keresztény Magvetö, xxi (1886), 6–20, 76–88, 142–152; Uzoni, Historia, i, 80–86.

14 Cf. József Ferencz, ‘Dávid Ferencz és a Szombatosság’ (F. D. and Sabbatarianism), Keresztény Magvetö, ix (1874), 338.

15 Cf. Boros, Krónika, i, 27–30; László Köváry, ‘Péchi Simon Kancellár’ (S. P., Chancellor) Keresztény Magvetó, vi (1871), 35 ff; Kohn, op. cit., pp. 39–45.

16 Cf. Kohn, Sabbatharier, pp. 85–97.

17 Cf. Magyar Emlékek, iii, 348.

18 Cf. Magyar Emlékek, vi, 170.

19 Ibid., vii, 488.

20 It can not have failed to affect the fortunes of the Sabbatarians that Pécsi who, though nominally a Unitarian was at heart a confirmed Sabbatarian, was for twenty years from 1601 in offices of the highest influence under successive Princes, being at last Chancellor under Gabriel Bethlen. He will quietly have used his influence in favor of moderation.

21 Magyar Emlékek, v, 165.

22 Cf. Mikó, Adatok, i, 29; Kohn, Sabbatharier, p. 106.

23 He was the son of Matthew Radecki, long Secretary of the city of Danzig (v. supra ,i, 505). The chief pastor of Kolozsvár, when a fugitive in Poland in 1603–04 from the fury of Básta, was treated by him with great kindness and formed a warm friendship with him. Returning home he so strongly recommended Radecki that the authorities at Kolozsvár invited him to leave his post as Rector of the school at Lucławice and become Pastor of the Saxon Unitarian church at Kolozsvár (1605). He later became chief pastor, and was Superintendent 1616–32, succeeding Toroczkai. He was a fine scholar and an eloquent speaker, and though a Unitarian was highly regarded by Bethlen for his Latin scholarship. In his time Kolozsvár was terribly devastated and the rural churches were greatly weakened by the plague; but he did all possible in difficult cir­cumstances to improve the discipline and good order of the churches. Taught by this experience of the inconvenience of having a Superintendent unable to speak their lan­guage, and thus hindered in giving them efficient supervision by visitations away from Kolozsvár, the Synod voted at his death that henceforth the Superintendent must always be a Hungarian. Cf. Uzoni, Historia, ii, 695–974.

24 v. supra, Ms p. 117.

25 Cf. Kohn, Sabbatharier, p. 155.

26 Cf. Kohn, loc. cit.; Katona István Geleji, Titkok titka (Mystery of mysteries — i.e., the Trinity), Gyula Fehérvár, 1645, p. 22 of the preface; Székely, Történetei, p. 132 f.

27 The Reformed writers usually pass over this unsavory story very lightly (cf. Bod, Historia, ii, 312, Geleji, op. cit., preface.) The version here given is from Uzoni, Historia, ii 898–900, as handed down by contemporary Unitarian witnesses. Cf. also the Ms church histories of Szent Ábrahámi and Agh in the Unitarian library at Kolozsvár.

28 This simultaneum, as it was called, is still practiced by one little community, that at Fiatfalva near Székely-Keresztúr, where two separate congregations, each with its own minister, Bible, hymn-books and organ, use the church alternately, and attend each other’s worship.

29 As the church was responsible for both the religious and the secular education of the young, each well organized congregation employed a teacher whose office was only less important than that of the minister. He was often a minister awaiting settlement, or a theological student, and was in effect an assistant minister.

30 v. supra, p. 107. Cf. Kohn, Sabbatharier, p. 129ff; Köváry, ‘Pécsi,’ pp. 34–38.

31 Cf. Magyar Emlékek, x, 14.

32 Cf. Magyar Emlékek, viii, 108.

33 Cf. Magyar Em1ékek, ix, 415.

34 Cf. Geleji, Titkok, p. 271.

35 Cf. Kohn, Sabbatharier, p. 199. The sentences to death or imprisonment were almost always remitted, but confiscation of property was uniformly enforced. Id. op., pp. 209, 216 f.

36 Cf. Magyar Emlékek, x, 182–190.

37 Cf. Kohn, op. cit., p. 223.

38 Cf. Kohn, op. cit., p. 225. Also Baron Zsigmond Kemény’s historical romance, A Rajongók (the Fanatics), in which Pécsi is the hero, and the sufferings of the Sabbatarians are described. Miklós Josika’s novels tell of persecutions under the Báthoris and the Rákóczis.

39 Cf. Keresztény Magvetö, xiii (1878), 362–366; xiv (1879), 35; xvi (1881), 323; xvii (1882), 108, 217; Kohn, Sabbatharier, p. 232 f.

40 Cf. Adolf Dux, Aus Ungarn (Leipsig, 1880), 270 f; Kohn, op. cit., p. 263.

41 Cf. Kohn, Sabbatharier,. pp. 269–296.

42 Though another died as a result of flogging.

43 Cf. Magyar Emlékek, x, 203; Geleji, Titkok, pref.; Kohn, op. cit., p. 217 ff; Uzoni, Historia, ii, 984.

44 Cf. Uzoni, Historia, ii, 767–769.

45 For the Consensus, see Uzoni, Historia, ii, 978 f; Bod, Historia, i, 451, ii, 304–306; Wallace, Antitrin., iii, 556 f; cf. supra, p. 86. For the confessions referred to above, see Uzoni, Historia, ii, 977 f; Bod, Historia, ii, 303 f.

46 Cf. Magyar Emlékek, x, 174–181; Uzoni, Historia, ii, 979–983; Bod, Historia, ii, 306–310; Sándor Szilágy, ‘Az Unitáriusok . . . s a deési Complanatio,’ etc. (The Uni­tarians and the Deés agreement), Keresztény Magvetö, ix (1874), 150 ff.

47Cf. supra, p. 100.

48 The items thus adopted were those already in use, and no new one was composed until 1670, nor was any allowed to be printed until 1693. Cf. Uzoni, Historia, 569.

49 Moses Pap, in 1875, as quoted by Rath, Siebenbürgen p. 142.

50 Cf. Uzonj, Historia, ii, 655.

51 Cf. Uzoni, Historia, ii, 656,670.

52 v. supra, vol. i. p.472.

53 Cf. Georg Kraus, Siebenbürgische Chronik, 1608–1665 (Fontes Rerurn Austria~ carom, Abt. i, Bde. 3, 4), Wien, 1864, iii, 241, 276, 284.

54 Cf. Johannes Bethlen, Rerum Transylvanicarun, libri quatuor (s. 1., 1664), lib. ii, Sec. 2, 3; Bod, Historia, ii, 251.

55 Cf. Bethlen, op. cit., p. 62.    

56 Cf. Uzoni, Historia, ii, 990.

57 Among others, Christian Francken Rector of the school at Chmielnik, to be Professor at Kolozsvár, 1585–99; Valentin Radecki Rector of the school at Lucławice, to be Pastor of the Saxon church 1605, Superintendent 1616–32, and chief Pastor 1622–32; Joachim Stegmann Rector at Raków, to be Pastor of the Saxon church, 1632–33; Adam Franck Rector at Raków, to be Pastor of the Saxon church, 1633–55; Valentin Baumgart Rector at Lucławice to be Rector at Kolozsvár, 1648, and chief Pastor, 1661–72.

58 Cf. Uzoni, Historia, ii, 785–789; Kraus, Chronik, iv, 149; Benkö, Transsilvania, ii, 582–584 Elek Jakab, ‘Magyar-Lengyel Unitárius Erintkezések’ (Intercourse between Hungarian and Polish Unitarians), Századok (Budapest), xxvi (1892), 298–316; 474–494; Székely, Történetei, p. 208 f; Lubieniecius, Historia, p. 297 f.

59 Dated January 19,1661. Cf. Elek Jakab, Oklevéltár, ii, 375 f.

60 Dated March 7, 1663. Signed by their Pastor and 23 others. Original Ms, as well as various records of the exiles, are in the archives of the Unitarian College at Kolozsvár.

61 Only 30 heads of families, says Jakab, Magyar-Lengyel, p.381; others say only 35 individuals.

62 The house is still in existence at No. 13 Belsö Monostor Utca (Strada Memoran­dului) near the great square.

63 One was at Bánffy Hunyad, about 30 miles west of Kolozsvár; one at Adámos on the Küküllö, about fifteen miles southwest of Maros-Vásárhely, and a small one was at Arkos in the Szekerland, north of Sepsi-Szent György. In these places the Poles being few worshiped with the Hungarian congregation though holding separate services when they were able and observing baptism and the Lord’s Supper after the Polish usage. But this practice was soon discouraged by the synod for fear of schism arising

64 Cf. Elek Jakab, ‘Adalékok a Magyar és lengyel Unitáriusok közötti viszony,’ etc (Ancient relations between Hungarian and Polish Unitarians), Keresztény Magvetô, xxix (1894), 316–324; and the same author’s article in Századok above mentioned, pp. 1–43; Domokos Simén, ‘Origo piarum fundationum apud Polonos Claudiopoli collectos, Keresztény Magvetö, xi (1876), 335–339; Tadeusz Grabowski, Literatura Aryańska w Polsce (Arian Literature in Poland), Kraków, 1908, pp. 346, 488.

65 Cf. Kanyaró, Unitáriusok, p. 223 f.

66 Cf. Áron Buzogány, ‘Augusztinowics Pál életrajza,’ etc. (The Life of P. A.), Keresztény Magvetö, iv (1864), 11–36.

67 Cf. Uzoni, Historia, ii, 661, 665.

68 Treaty of June 28, 1686; cf. Johannes Borbis, Die evangelisch-lutherische Kirche Ungarns (Nördlingen, 1861), p. 494.


Chapter 8

1 Cf. Lampe, Historia, pp. 872–919.

2 Cf. Uzoni, Historia, ii, 680–689; Bod, Historia, ii, 192–194. Quatuor receptae :religiones nullo unquam modo, ternpore, et praetextu, in suo libero exercitio turbentur sed omnes ecciesiae, templa, scholae, parochiae, in suo usibus, cultibus, terminis, proventibus, privilegiis et consuetudinibus, hactenus usitatis, in etiam eorum ministr in suo ministerio honore et libertate jntacte conserventur.

3 Cf. Uzoni, Historia, ii, 695–699; Bod, Historia, ii, 197–203.

4 Cf. Uzoni, Historia, ii, 701–729; Bod, Historia, ii, 204, 207.

5 Cf. Uzoni, Historia, ii, 780, 1014—1022.

6 Cf. Uzoni, Historia, ii, 911 f.

7 Cf. Uzoni, op. cit., ii, 916–918.

8 Cf. Székely, Történetei, p. 163; Uzoni, op. cit., i, 571–579.

9 Cf. Uzoni, Historia, ii, 671–673.

10 Cf. Uzoni, op. cit., ii, 676. Responses were prompt and generous. From the home churches 1,688 Hungarian florins were subscribed, besides generous gifts of material; and sixteen months after the fire the new building was roofed in. From the churches in Holland there were given in the next year 9,500 florins. The correspondence is extant in the Remonstrant library at Rotterdam (Ms 529), and the elaborate letter of thanks, signed by the Superintendent and all the District Superintendents in the name of the churches, dated 1700, is given in Uzoni, op. cit., pp. 677–679. Cf. also W. J. Kühler, Socinianisme in Nederland (Leiden, 1912), p. 205.

11 For the correspondence, cf Uzoni, Historia, ii,1048–1056.

12 In order to have the right background for judging this period of persecution, it needs to be borne in mind that of old in Transylvania churches and schools had at first been built at public expense, and were thus the possession of the whole community. When the Reformation came the Catholics had in most communities been dispossessed by the overwhelming Protestant majority; for in all Transylvania there were only five towns in the Hungarian counties in which Catholic churches remained, besides those in four remote Szekler districts. Cf. József Ferencz, Kleiner Unitarier-Spiegel (Wien, 1879), p. 20. But as the religious complexion of the communities gradually changed after the death of King John and under the Catholic revival, and the Unitarians be­came proportionately weaker under the increasing pressure of persecution upon them, the other confessions naturally urged their claims to a share of the common church and school property in various communities. The Catholics moreover were disposed to claim that even when usurped by Protestants the churches had always remained the property of the Catholic Church, and to demand restitution whenever even a small proportion of the population asserted their claim. If the Catholic administration now supported their claim by force, the Unitarians would naturally feel unjustly deprived of what had for generations been regarded as theirs. With rights so mixed, and patience and consideration so seldom shown, violence was bound to occur, and the issue was likely often to be settled by superior force rather than by peaceable means.

13 Cf. Bod, Historia, iii, 213 f.

14 Cf. Chalmers, Recollections, p. 13.

15 Cf. Uzoni, Historia, ii, 920 f.

16 Cf. Uzoni, Historia,ii, 921.

17 Cf. Uzoni, Historia, ii, 1097–1144; i, 575, 579.

18 From the time when Transylvania was liable any day to be suddenly raided by Tatars or Turks, the stone church of the village was the only place to which the inhabitants might flee for safety from the enemy, and it thus became a fortress, often surrounded by a high stone wall, which could withstand siege. Within this wall, or in the church itself, as a place of general safe-deposit, the people would store their most valuable treasures, their fine clothing, and even their staple provisions. The same tradition was sometimes followed even in towns where it was less necessary, and it is continued to this day in many of the rural villages.

19 Confessio fidei Christianae secundum Unitarios, etc. (Kolozsvár, 1719), 7 pp., 40. Incorporated in Uzoni, Historia, ii,1139 ff. This Confession was originally composed by Benedict Wiszowaty, minister to the exile church at Andreaswalde in East Prussia (whose son Andrew was minister to the exile church at Kolozsvár, 1724–35), and was dedicated to the Elector of Brandenburg at a time when danger threatened the Unitarians under his government (v. supra, vol. i, p. 516,n. 14).

20 Cf. Uzoni, Historia, ii, 1130 f.

21 Cf. Uzoni, Historia, ii, 1022–1025, 1039–1047.

22 Cf. Uzoni Historia, ii, 1149–1155.

23 Cf. Uzoni Historia, ii, 1157–1163.

24 Cf. Elek Jakab, ‘Szentábrahámi Mihály’ (with portrait), Keresztény Magvetö, i (1861), 158–185.

25 Summa universae theologiae Christianae secundum Unitarios (Claudiopoli, 1787). The author’s name nowhere appears, hence it was sometimes attributed to George Márkos, Professor of Theology at Kolozsvár, who prepared it for publication. Hungarian trans., A Keresztény hittudomany összege az Unitáriusok szerint (Kolozsvár), 1899. Cf. W. C. L. Ziegler, ‘Kurze Darstellung des eigenthümlichen Lehrbegriffs,’ etc., Neues Magazin für Religionsphilosophie, iv (1800), 201–276.

26 Cf. Sándor Bodóczy, ‘Maria Therezia egyházpolitikája és annak következménnye az Unitárius egyházban’ (M. T.’s ecclesiastical policy and itsresults on the Unitarian Church), Keresztény Magvetö, xliii (1908), 20–30, 84–93.

27 Cf. Bod, Historia, iii, 303.

28 Cf. Bod, loc. cit. 

29 In her treatment of Protestants she is said to have followed the counsel of her Jesuit confessor, Ignaz Kampmüller.

30 Cf. Elek Jakab, ‘Az Unitáriusok üldöztetése a Jezuiták által’ (The persecution of the Unitarians by the Jesuits), Keresztény Magvetö, xviii (1883), 388–399.

31 Cf. Bod, Historia, iii, 339 f; Bodóczy, Maria Therezia, p. 92 f.

32 Cf. Bodóczy, op. cit., p. 96.

33 Cf. Bod, Historia, iii, 332.

34 Cf. Bodóczy, op. cit., pp. 85–91.


Chapter 9

1 For the text, cf. Johannes Borbis, Evangelisch, pp. 119–121; and Gustav Frank, Der Toleranz — Patent Kaiser Josephs II (Wien, 1882), pp. 37–41. A similar edict for Tran­sylvania was issued a few weeks later. Cf. August Ludwig von Schlözer, Staatsanzeiger (Göttingen, 1782), i, 150.

2 Cf Elek Jakab, ‘Agh István Unitarius püspök etc. (Stephen Agh Unitarian Bishop), Keresztény Magvetö, xvii, (1882), p. 65 ff.

3 Cf. Lajos Nagy, ‘Suki László élete és alapitványa’ (Ladislas Suki’s life and endow­ment), Keresztény Magvetö, iii, (1867), 125–132.

4 Cf. Articuli Diaetales Anni MDCCXCI (Claudiopoli, 1793), arts. 53, 55, 56, pp. 109–111.

5 Cf. A nemes Erdélyi Fejedelemség, etc. (The noble principality of Transylvania), Kolozsvár, 1791.

6 Cf. Wallace, Antitrin., i, 454–458.

7 For other brief notices in this period, cf. Henry Maty’s New Review (London), vii (1663), 477; Robinson, Researches, 1792, p. 627 ff; Robert Adam, Religious World Displayed (Edinburgh, 1809), ii, 150, briefly reviewed in Monthly Repository, vii (1812), 82 f; Thomas Rees, Racovian Catechism (London, 1818), p. xli ff.

8 Cf. Inquirer (London), Jan. 26, 1935, p. 4.

9 Published in Monthly Repository, xv (1820), 193–199, and reprinted in Wallace, Antitrin., iii, 594–599.

10 Unitariorum in Anglia fidei, historiae, et status praesentis brevis expositio (London, April 30, 1821), 13 pp., 8ş. Signed by two Unitarian ministers. W. J. Fox and R. Aspland.

11 The letter was in Latin, dated Kolozsvár, August 31, 1821, and addressed to Fox and Aspland. It gave a brief account of the organization, condition and history of the church in Transylvania, reported 120 congregations and 40,000 members, and requested further correspondence. Cf. Monthly Repository, xvii (1922), 437 f; translation in Christian Reformer (London), viii (1822), 253; Dionysius Lörinczy, ‘The Hungarian Unitarian Church,’ Transactions of Unitarian Historical Society (London), iii (1923), 20–39.

12 Published in the Unitarian Fund Register, no. vi, pp. 51–56, bound in at the end of the Monthly Repository, xx (1825).

13Utazas észek Amerikaban (Travels in North America), Kolozsrár, 1824. See also his letter to Fox, giving an ‘Account of the Unitarians of Transylvania,’ and reporting a membership of 47,000; published in Monthly Repository, N. S. v (1831), 648–651.

14 Said to have been younger brother of the statesman Charles Sumner. Cf. Charles Lowe, ‘The Unitarians of Hungary,’ Monthly Journal of the American Unitarian Association (Boston), ix (1868), 423–426.

15 Cf. Áron Buzogány, ‘Augusztinovics Pál életrajza tekintettel a lengyel Unitáriusok történetere’ (The life of  P. A. of the Polish Unitarians),Keresztény Magvetö, iv (1864), 11–36. Potrait.

16 Cf. Ferencz, Spiegel, p. 122 f, the 20th article.

17 For a picture of this period in the form of historical fiction, see Maurus Jókai, Egy az Isten (God is One); translated into German with the title, Die nur einmal lieben, and into English (abridged) as Manasseh. Cf. John Fretwell, The Christian in Hungarian Romance (Boston, 1901). The hero of the story is a Toroczkó pacifist Unitarian.

18 For an account of his scheme, cf. Charles Loring Brace, Hungary in 1851 (New York, 1852), pp. 208–217.

19 Cf. Ferencz, Spiegel. p. 25. When the Protestant confessions reorganized their institutions after the Reformation, they gave the administrative head the title of Superintendent. For a long time they preferred this title as tending to break the chain of ideas associated with the title of Bishop. But as time went on, in the period of Catholic supremacy, the title of Superintendent came by contrast to betoken an inferior dignity; and under the new order of things the title of Bishop (which had all along been more or less employed unofficially) was authorized as official, and taken as signifying an ecclesiastical rank equal to the other, thus indicating that the four received religions were recognized as of equal rank. Cf. Elek Jakab, ‘Az unitárius püspöki jogosultsága’ (The right to the title of Unitarian Bishop), Keresztény Magvetö, xxviii (1893), 199–205.

20 Cf. Christian Reformer, N.S. xiii (1857), 301–304, 374–378, Quarterly Journal of American Unitarian Association (Boston), iv (1857), p. 486 f; v (1858), 234–241; Inquirer (London), xvii (1858), 815 f.

21 In the matter of statistics the Transylvanian churches continued the Catholic custom of numbering not merely the confirmed adult membership, but the whole population of the church families, of whatever age. Thus, when taken by western standards, the membership would be much smaller than the statistics indicate.

22 John Paget (1808–‘92), born near Loughborough in Leicestershire, educated at the Unitarian Manchester College at York, studied medicine, and traveled widely in southeastern Europe. His Hungary and Transylvania (2 vols., London, 1839) did much to make those countries better known. He married a Hungarian baroness and settled in Transylvania where he promoted scientific agriculture. He endowed an English chair at the Unitarian College at Kolozsvár in memory of his son. Cf. János Kovács, ‘Paget János, Esq. Életirata’ (Life of J. P., Esq.), Keresztény Magvetö, xxviii (1893), 96–1. Portrait.

23 A foundation for intelligent interest in their cause had been laid in 1846 when Stephen Kovács contributed an informing article (much the best, hitherto), annotated Paget, an ‘Antitrinitarianism in Transylvania,’ to J. R. Beard’s Unitarianism Exhibited (London, 1846), pp. 296–315.

24 Cf. M. Lucy Tagart, The Hungarian and Transylvanian Unitarians (London, 1903). v. also the article by Mr. Paget in Christian Reformer, N. S., xiv (1858), 746–752, and Inquirer, xvii (1858), 762 f.

25 Which however was unfortunately clouded by the fact that Mr. Tagart was taken seriously ill on his return journey, and died at Brussels on October 12. This broken ion was supplemented in 1859 by a visit from the Rev. S. A. Steinthal of Manchester, Kilt out by the Association. Cf. his published account infra.

26 Cf. Joseph Ferencz, Short Account of the Unitarian Church of Hungary (Budapest, 1907), pp. 27, 34 ff.

27 After the beginning of the twentieth century an occasional student from Transylvania reported for graduate study at one of the American schools.

28 Published accounts of these visits give a more vivid contemporary sense of the life of the Unitarian churches during this period than any purely historical narrative could do. Cf. S. A. Steinthal, ‘Account of a Visit to Transylvania,’ Christian Reformer, N. S. xv (1859), 477–489, 530–538; also Inquirer, June 25, 1859; J. J. Tayler, ‘Narrative of a Visit,’ etc., Theological Review (London), vi (1869), 2–48, also separately; Alexander Gordon, Tercentennial Commemoration of Francis Dávid (London, 1879); Chalmers, Recollections; Henry Ierson, Report of a Visit to Hungary (London, 1891); Tagart, op. cit. See also articles by American visitors in Unitarian Review (Boston), ii (1874), 357; xvii (1882), 38; xxiii (1885), 134; xxiv (1885), 33, 117 Monthly Journal, x (1869), 83, 396.

29 When the Transylvanian University was established at Kolozsvár in 1872 both the Rector and the Pro-rector chosen were Unitarians formerly connected with the Unitarian College there.

30 Cf. Lörinczy, op. cit.

31 Including 54 filialae, that is, ‘mission congregations,’ unable as yet to support a minister of their own, but with worship regularly conducted by a neighboring minister.

32 Cf. ‘The situation in Transylvania, and an appeal for help,’ Christian Register (Boston), Jan. 15, 1920; Louis C. Cornish, Transylvania in 1922 (Boston, 1923); id., The Religious Minorities in Transylvania (Boston, 1925); John M. Cabot, The Racial Conflict in Transylvania (Boston, 1926); Roumania Ten Years After (Boston, 1928). Also for ex parte treatments (to be read with critical caution), Henrietta M. Tichner, Roumonia and her Religious Minorities (London, 1925); Zsombor de Szász, The Minorities in Roumanian Transylvania (London, 1927); Sylvius Dragomir, The Ethnical Minorities in Transylvania (Geneva, 1927).

33 A summary account of his manifold services is to be found in Denis Valentine Szantó, With God against Hitler (Budapest, 1946).

34 Cited by Athanase Coquerel, Fils, ‘Une Visite aux Chrétiens Unitaires de Transylvania,’ Revue Politique et Littéraire (Paris), 2e série, iii (1873), 426. Cf. also Elek Jakab, ‘Egyháztörtenelmi Adatok’ (Contributions to Church History), Keresztény Magvetö, xviii (1883), 388 ff; id., Unitáriusok, 388–399.

35 Ignaz Aurelius Fessler, Die Geschichten der Ungarn und ihrer Landsassen (Leipzig,1815).

36 Cf. Révész, Kováts and Ravasz, Hungarian Protestantism (Budapest, 1927), pp. 123–127; Ferencz, Account, pp. 12–16; György Tóth, Az Unitárius Egyház Szervezete (The organization of the Unitarian Church), 3 vols. (Cluj-Kolozsvár, 1922); Stephen Borbély, Article on the Constitution of the Hungarian Unitarian Church, in Christian Seedsower (Birmingham), no. 1, 1922.

37 Any confessions or statements of belief presented at Deés in 1636 or before or after are long since disregarded as antiquated.


Chapter 10

1 Cf. Joshua Toulmin, Review of the Life . . . of the Rev. John Biddle (London, 1789), p. 13.

2 Cf. Dictionary of National Biography, s. v.

3 Cf. D.N.B., s. v.; Thomas Crosby, History of the English Baptists (London, 1738),i, 20 f; Alexander Gordon, Heresy (London, 1913), pp. 16–18, 59 f; John Foxe, Acts and Monuments (London, 1870), iii, 221–234.

4 Cf. D. N. B., s. v.; Alexander Gordon, Heads of English Unitarian History (London, 1895), p. 14; Gaston Bonet-Maury, Early Sources of English Unitarian Christianity (London, 1884), pp. 27–29.

5 The so-called ‘Wyclif’s Bible’ was probably translated not by him but by his disciples.

6 Cf. Daniel Neal, History of the Puritans (London, 1822), i, 13 f.

7 Cf. Bonet-Maury, op. cit., p. 44 f.

8 Cf. Gilbert Burnet, Abridgment of the History of the Reformation (London, 1728), ii, 80 f.

9 Cf. Benjamin Evans, The Early English Baptists (London, 1662), i, 46. Other authorities give different figures.

10 Cf. John Strype, Ecclesiastical Memorials (Oxford, 1822), II, i, 369.

11 Cf. Robert Wallace, Antitrinitarian Biography (London, 1850), i, 5.

12 Cf. David Wilkins, Concilia Magnae Britanniae (London, 1737), iv, 40–42; John Strype, Memorials of Thomas Cranmer (Oxford, 1840), i, 255–257; Monthly Repository of Theology (London), vii (1822), 222,

13 Cf. Strype, Memorials, II, i, 375–382; id., Cranmer (Oxford, 1822), i, 335–346; John S. Burn, History of the French, Walloon, Dutch and other Protestant Refugees settled in England (London, 1846), passim; Bonet-Maury, Sources, pp. 60–66, 115–136; The King’s Letters Patent in Burn, op. cit., pp. 265–268, and in Bonet-Maury, pp. 236–243. There were also churches of foreigners in a score or so of other centers.

14 Cf.  Burnet Abridgment ii 82 Wilkins Concilia iv, 44 f; Neal Puritans, i, 50; Monthly Repository, vii (1812), 439–442; Christian Relormer (London), iv (1818), 329; Wallace, Antitrin., ii, 124–127; Evans, English Baptists, i, 80; D. N. B., s. v.

15 Cf. Neal, Puritans, i, 74–88; Strype, Memorials, III, ii, 554–556; Crosby, English Baptists, i, 64.

16 Cf. Evans, English Baptists, i, 102.

17 Cf. Wallace, Antitrin., i, 29; ii, 127–130; Strype, Memorials, III, i, 540–542.

18 Reprinted in part, with comments, in Theophilus Lindsey, Historical View of the State of the Unitarian Doctrine, etc. (London, 1783), p. 92 ff; Strype, Memorials, III, 1, 434 f, 469, III, ii, 363–380; Wallace, Antitrin., i. 23 ff; Joseph Henry Allen, Historical Sketch of the Unitarian Movement (New York, 1894), p. 19 f; John Philpot, Examinations and Writings (Parker Society), Cambridge, 1842, pp. 293–318.

19 Cf. Wallace, Antitrin., i, 30 f; Strype, Memorials, III, i, 543 f; Bartholomew Traheron, Exposition of Part of St. John’s Gospel . . . against the Arians (London, 1858).

20 Cf. Wallace, loc. cit.; Anthony ŕ Wood, Athenae Oxonienses (London, 1721), i, 137, 148, also reprinted; D. N. B., s. v.

21 Cassiodoro de Reyna, said to have been an avowed Servetian, was minister of the Spanish congregation, 1558–63; but he afterwards fell into disgrace, fled the country, and eventually returned to the Catholic Church. Cf. Henri Tollin, ‘Cassiodore de Reina’ Bulletin de la Societé de l’histoire du Protestantisme Français (Paris), xxxi (1882), 385–397; xxxii (1883), 241–250. 289–298.

22 Cf. Wallace, Antitrin., i, 35.

23 Cf. John Strype, History . . . of Edmund Grindal (Oxford, 1831), pp. 61–69.

24 Cf. Strype, op. cit., p. 66. Acontius, born in the Trentino probably in 1492, after first studying for the priesthood, later chose the law. He next pursued military science, and spent several years in the service of the Duke of Pescara and at the court of the Spanish Viceroy at Milan. Having become Protestant he left Italy in 1557 and took refuge at Zürich with Ochino, was for a time at Basel where he associated with the group of Italian liberals, and then at Strassburg where he met English exiles, whom he later joined in England after their return thither. He became a member of the Strangers’ Church, was granted citizenship in 1561, and was in such favor with the Queen that although the Bishop had excommunicated him in the same year he dedicated his most important reli­gious work to her in 1565. Cf. Peter Bayle, Dictionary, Historical and Critical, ed. 2 (London, 1734–38), s. v.; Monthly Repository, xvi (1821), 456–458; Bonet-Maury, Sources, chap. viii; Francesco Ambrosi, Jacopo Aconcio (Trieste, 1888); Walther Köhler, Acontiana (Heidelberg, 1932); Erich Hassinger, Studien zu J. Acontius (Berlin, 1934); D. N. B., s. v.; Louis Anastase Guichard, Histoire du Socinianisme (Paris, 1723), pp.261–264.

25 Twenty-five editions in all are known, the latest and best being that edited by Walther Köhler (München, 1927). Gives full bibliography. Cf. Daniel Gerdes, Scrinium Antiquarium (Groningen, 1762), vii, 123–133; id., Historia Reformationis (Groningen, 1749), iii, 147; Observationes Selectae (Halle, 1700–05), vi, 204–230; Lindsey, Historical View, pp. 73–84; Girolamo Tiraboschi, Storia della Letteratura Italiana (Modena, 1824), vii, 559,700, 818; Edoardo Ruffini Avonda, ‘Gli “Stratagemata Satanae” di GiacomoAconcio,’ Rivista Storia Italiana (Torino, 1928), xiv, 113–141, and that by G. Rŕdetti (Firenze, 1945). English trans., Satan’ Stratagems (San Francisco, 1940); Thomas Crenius, Animadversiones philologicae et historicae (Lugduni Batavorum, 1695), ii, 30.

26 Monthly Repository, xvi (1821), 456 ff.

27 Cf. Wallace, Antitrin., i, 108 f.

28 Cf. Thomas Fuller, Church History of Great Britain (London, 1837), ii, 508, quoted by Crosby, English Baptists, i, 69–74; John Strype, Annals of the Reformation, II, i, 564; Neal, Puritans, i, 273; Wallace, op. cit., i, 35 f; Evans, English Baptists, i, 138–164; Edward B. Underhill, Struggles and Triumph of Religious Liberty (New York, 1851), pp. 179–190.

29 Cf. Wallace, op. cit., iii, 554–556; Theophilus Lindsey, Apology on Resigning the Vicarage of Catterick, ed. 4 (Dublin, 1775), 226–239; Wilkins, Concilia, iv, 282; Gordon, Heresy, p. 24; Fuller, op. cit., iv, 387 f; Crosby, loc. cit.; Fuller, op. cit., iv, 387 ff; Neal, Puritans, loc cit.

30 Cf. a spectator’s account by William Burton, in David’s Evidence (1602), quoted in Christian Moderator (London), i, 37 (June 1, 1826); Wallace, Antitrin., i, 7–39;  Fuller, Church History, iii, 66f; Strype, Annals, III, ii, 73;  D. N. B., s. vv.

31 In addition to those spoken of above, perhaps brief mention should be made in passing of three others whose names occur in the record, information about whom is scanty, vague or disputed. So Christopher Vitells (or Viret), the first Familist preacher in England, who saved his life by recanting (Gordon, Heads, p. 16). Also Christopher Marlowe (1564–93), the dramatist contemporary with Shakspere, who is said to have denied God and his Son Christ, blasphemed the Trinity, and written against it, though the charge is denied as a Puritan libel (Wallace, Antitrin, i, 40–42; Wood, Athenae, i 338; Monthly Repository, ix (1814), pp. 117, 302; Theophilus Cibber, Lives of the Poets, etc. (London, 1753), i, 85 f). So also Thomas Mannering, Anabaptist of Norfolk who denied the deity of Christ, declaring that he was only a man, though endowed with infinite power from God. Against him Alexander Gill published a Treatise concerning the Trinity in 1601. What became of him is not of record (Wallace, Antitrin., i, 39; ‘Wood, Athenae, i, 602; John Masson, Life of John Milton (Cambridge, 1859), iii, 157, 385, 389).

32 Cf. Wa1lace, Antitrin., i, 42 f.

33 Cf. supra, vol. 1, pp. 541 f, 411.

34 Cf. Fuller, Church History, iii, 252–255;  John Locke, Works (London, 1824), ix, 188–197; Crosby, English Baptists, i, 107; Lindsey, Historical View, pp. 289–294; id., Apology, pp. 47–51; id., Conversations on Christian Idolatry (London, 1792), p. 119 f; Christian Reformer, N. S., xi (1884), 100, 227 f, 343; Wallace, Antitrin., ii, 530–534; ‘Florence Gregg, Bartholomew Legate, the last of the Smithfield Martyrs (London, 1886), historical fiction.

35 See the warrant and narrative, quoted by Theophilus Lindsey, Conversations on the Divine Government (London, 1802), i, 119 f.

36 Cf. Fuller, Church History. iii, 255; Neal Puritans, i, 259; Crosby, English Baptists, i, 108, Appendix i; Wallace, Antitrin., ii, 534–539,iii, 565–568; Lindsey, Apology, pp. 52–55; Christian Reformer, N. S. xi (1844), 99–103, 227 f, 343.

37 Cf. Neal, Puritans, i, 260.

38Archbishop Tillotson thus spoke in warm appreciation of the Socinians and of their temperate manner in doctrinal controversy. Cf. his sermon on the Divinity of our blessed Saviour, Works (London, 1820), iii, 310 f, quoted by Krasinski, Reformation in Poland, ii, 407.

39 v. supra, p. 148.

40 Cf. John Tulloch, Rational Theology and Christian Philosophy in England (Edinburgh, 1872), i, 76–343.

41 Cf. John Aubrey, Brief Lives, chiefly of Contemporaries (Oxford, 1898), i, 278; D. N. B., s. v,; John James Tayler, Retrospect of the Religious Life of England (London, 1845), p. 306.

42Cf. Farindon’s letter prefixed to Hales’s Golden Remains (London, 1688), p. 3.

43 Cf. Francis Cheynell, Rise, Growth, and Danger of Socinianisme (London, 1643), p. 39 f.

44 Cf. Jared Sparks, Collection of Essays and Tracts in Theology, from various authors (Boston, 1825), vol. v for a sketch of Hale’s life, and his writings here cited; D. N. B,, s. v.

45 Cf. Pierre des Maizeaux, Historical and Critical Account . . . of Chillingworth (London, 1725); Tulloch, Rational Theology, i, chap. iv; D. N. B., s. v.; Robert Aspland, ‘Brief Memoir of Mr. Chillingworth,’ Monthly Repository, ix (1814), I, 337, 206; Biographia Britannica (London, 1747–66), iii, 508–518.

46The items in the controversy were: Edward Knott (pseud.), Charity Mistaken (1630); Christopher Potter, Want of Charity justly charged (1633); Knott, Mercy and Truth (1634); id., A Direction to be observed by N. N. (Chillingworth) (1636);Shillingworth, The Religion of Protestants a Safe Way to Salvation (1638).

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